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The whole **derivation** of the **lens** maker formula is provided further below. We can say that, using the formula for refraction at a single spherical surface, For the first surface, For the second surface, Now adding **equation** (1) and (2), n1/v -n1/u = (n2-n1)[1/R1 - 1/ R2] on simplifying we get,. The magnification is negative for real image and positive for virtual image. In the case of a concave **lens**, it is always positive. Using **lens** formula the **equation** for magnification can also be obtained as . m = h 2 /h 1 = v//u = (f-v)/f = f/(f+u) This **equation** is valid for both convex and concave lenses and for real and virtual images. The whole **derivation** of the **lens** maker formula is provided further below. We can say that, using the formula for refraction at a single spherical surface, For the first surface, For the second surface, Now adding **equation** (1) and (2), n1/v -n1/u = (n2-n1)[1/R1 - 1/ R2] on simplifying we get,. **equations**. Geometric **derivation** of the magnification **equation**. Similar triangles. The magnification **equation**. M = h i = d i: h o: d o: ... Using these new terms, the **lens** **equation** can be stated more compactly in words and symbols. "The power of a **lens** is the sum of the object and image vergences." Since it is a linear relationship, it is also. The complete **derivation** of **lens** maker formula is described below. Using the formula for refraction at a single spherical surface we can say that, For the first surface, For the second surface, Now adding **equation** (1) and (2), When u = ∞ and v = f But also, Therefore, we can say that, Where μ is the refractive index of the material.